As in next-generation optical networks the signal will remain in the optical domain for portion of the path or even for the entire path, making them more vulnerable to physical layer attacks, security issues in these networks are of paramount importance. An attack can be defined as an intentional action against the ideal and secure functioning of the network. In general, the physical layer attacks in transparent optical networks can be grouped in two main categories: eavesdropping and service disruption. The first category of attacks is eavesdropping, in which case the main purpose of the attacker is to passively analyze the traffic in the network after gaining access to the information through an unauthorized observation method. To gain mid-span access to the fiber, the eavesdropper has to cut through and strip away the cable’s outer jacket to access the individual fibers in its center. The second category of attacks is high-power jamming. This type of attack propagates through the transparent network affecting several connections. Due to the high bit rates of optical networks and the interaction of the connections, a jamming attack can cause a huge amount of information loss. Therefore, the limitation of attack propagation is a crucial consideration in designing next generation optical networks.

There have been few public reports of physical attacks on the fiber infrastructure; in 2000, three main trunk lines of Deutsche Telekom were breached at Frankfurt Airport in Germany and in 2003, an illegal eavesdropping device was discovered in Verizon's optical network. Utilizing this optical tap, it was believed that someone was trying to illegally access financial information prior to its release. Other reported international incidents for optical taps on proprietary networks include police networks in the Netherlands and Germany, and the networks of large pharmaceutical companies in the U.K. and France. (Sandra Kay Miller, “Fiber optic network vulnerable to attack”, Information Security Magazine, Nov. 2006.)

The project “Security enhancement of optIcal nEtwork Logical Design” (SHIELD) is a research effort focusing on the logical design of secure next-generation optical networks. The logical design problem of optical networks is referred to the process of finding paths and wavelengths (lightpaths) to requested connections. This problem, known as the Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) is considered as one of the most important problems in optical network design. The project focus on providing flexibility in the utilization of resources to minimize the CAPital Expenditures (CAPEX) and Operational EXpenditures (OPEX) costs, such as monetary cost and power consumption, while offering security capabilities against physical layer attacks.

                                                                          

The research is funded by the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA Grant Agreement n° 630853.

Project Website: http://www.kios.ucy.ac.cy/shield/

 


 

 

Thumbnail The KIOS Research and Innovation Center of Excellence at the University of Cyprus is coordinating a new ERC Proof-of-Concept project, entitled Domognostics, which aims at reducing energy losses in buildings using intelligent building automation diagnostics.   The ERC Proof-of-Concept Grants are available to existing ERC Grantees to help them capitalize on the value of their excellent research...
Thumbnail The KIOS Research and Innovation Center of Excellence of the University of Cyprus coordinates the ENHANCE research project. ENHANCE aims to pave the way for a seamless and massive deployment of solar energy into the power system by developing innovative residential photovoltaic systems (PVs). Currently, the high penetration of residential photovoltaic systems is possible to cause stability and...
Thumbnail A smart micro-grid is a small-scale power-grid system consisting of a number of distributed energy sources, loads and storage units, which is responsible to ensure power sufficiency in a small area. The effectiveness of a smart micro-grid depends on the proper implementation of a communication and networking system which monitors, controls and manages the grid’s operations. Due to the ever...
Thumbnail The deterioration of drinking water quality due to a microbiological or chemical contamination can have a dramatic impact on everyday life, as well as the local economy. For example, an accidental microbiological contamination in 2007 of the Nokia water supply in Finland affected 10,000 consumers, leaving them without access to clean water for three months. The situation is especially severe in...
Thumbnail CY-CISE aims at the development of a Cypriot information sharing environment towards an integrated platform for national maritime surveillance awareness, complying with the overall European CISE vision.   CY CISE leverages the work of the Hellenic CISE project to  develop (i) One National Situational Picture Manager (NSPM) for Cyprus that will collect and aggregate maritime information from all...
The KIOS Research Center at the University of Cyprus and Imperial College London, a world-leading institution in research and innovation, have received a grant from HORIZON 2020 under the TEAMING call to develop a Center of Excellence in the area of Intelligent Systems and Networks. The KIOS-Imperial Teaming proposal was one of 31 proposals selected (out of 169 submitted) from across the EU. The...
Thumbnail Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are considered by the European Commission as a promising technology for both environmental and infrastructure monitoring with broad applicability to a plethora of governmental applications[1]. One such highly-relevant application domain is that of monitoring disaster-prone regions for the purpose of prevention and risk reduction. In this domain, traditional...
Thumbnail As in next-generation optical networks the signal will remain in the optical domain for portion of the path or even for the entire path, making them more vulnerable to physical layer attacks, security issues in these networks are of paramount importance. An attack can be defined as an intentional action against the ideal and secure functioning of the network. In general, the physical layer...
Thumbnail The KIOS Research Center has recently joined forces with two leading SMEs, RIO Systems of Israel and SignalGeneriX of Cyprus, in the framework of the project entitled “Full-Duplex Radio for LTE Communication Systems (FUPLEX)”. The project is part of the “Bilateral Cooperation” programs funded by the Research Promotion Foundation of Cyprus and the Ministry of Industry, Trade and Labor of Israel. The...
Thumbnail   Photovoltaics (PV) have the potential to become a major source of renewable energy and clean electricity in the future and can provide a significant share of European electricity demand. However, there are several challenges that need to be addressed prior to the widespread adoption and utilization of PV technologies. For example, the electricity generation cost for PV systems needs to be...
Thumbnail   The KIOS Research Center is participating in an important EU research and innovation project to develop technology that can help medical services to be better prepared and able to respond to emergency situations appropriately and efficiently. Large-scale disaster situations and incidents such as the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, the Fukushima tsunami, and even the very recent hurricane Sandy...
Thumbnail “Critical infrastructure systems provide the lifeline that physically ties communities and facilitates quality of life and economic growth. When critical infrastructures fail, the consequences may be tremendous, in view of societal, health and economic aspects.”   FAULT-ADAPTIVE is a pioneering research initiative, aimed at designing and analyzing “smart” algorithms for real-time data processing,...